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Author: Dr. Karimullah Zirvi
Description: Excellent book on Islam with the best introduction ever on Ahmadiyyat. It explains what Ahmadiyyat is, it's aims and objects, differences between Ahmadi and non-Ahmadi Muslims, our chanda system, Nizam-e-Jama'at, etc. (read it online)
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Divine Manifestations (Tajalliyat-e-illahiyyah) is an unfinished book of The Promised Messiahas, written in 1906 and published posthumously in 1922. The book covers important subjects of divine knowledge and spiritual insight. It opens with an account of the precision with which the Promised Messiah's prophecies regarding earthquakes had been fulfilled, and foretells the coming of five more terrible catastrophes. In this context, Haduras also explains the philosohopy behind divine chastisement.
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It is now more than fifteen years since the Ordinance was promulgated. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has suffered a great deal after Dictator Ziaul Haq promulgated Ordinance XX in 1984. The suffering continues unabated. It is a touching story and this Souvenir tells only a part of it. (read it online)
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Elucidation of Objectives is an English translation of Taudih-e-Maram (Urdu), a companion volume of the two treatises Fat-he-Islam and Izala-e-Auham, written in 1891 by Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, The Promised Messiah and Mahdi as, Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at. The book contains a detailed refutation of the conventional Muslim and Christian belief that Jesus was raised to the heavens alive and shall return in his material body sometime in the latter days.
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Home Critical Analysis/Archives Report on the Situation of Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan
Report on the Situation of Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan

BIBLIOGRAPHY

UN Documents

UN Declaration of Human Rights 1948

Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, G.A. res. 36/55, 36 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 171, U.N. Doc. A/36/684 (1981)

UN cassette recording
statement of Minority Rights Group before United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
August 7, 1984

UN cassette recording
statement of Justice Jules Deschenes before United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
August 26, 1985

Resolution No. 1985/21 passed by the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.

UN Document E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/57

UN Document E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/L.42

UN cassette recording
statement of Mr. Peter Davies representing Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights before United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
February 14, 1986

UN cassette recording
statement of Barrister Ilyas Khan representing Human Rights Advocates before United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
February 24, 1986

UN cassette recording
statement of Dr. Karen Parker representing Human Rights Advocates before United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
March 5, 1986

UN cassette recording
statement of His Excellency, Robert H. Robertson,
Commission Member for Australia
March 5, 1986

UN cassette recording
statement of Ambassador Francis Mahon Hayes,
Commission Member for Ireland
March 6, 1986

UN Press Release HR/1676,
March 7, 1986

UN Document E/CN.4/1986/SR.30

UN Document E/CN.4/1986/SR.44

UN Document E/CN.4/1986/SR.46

UN Document E/CN.4/1986/5

UN Document E/CN.4/1986/NGO 30, submitted by Human Rights Advocates on February 24, 1986

UN Document E/CN.4/1987/26 (at pg. 3)
Study of the Current Dimensions of the Problems of Intolerance and of Discrimination on Grounds of Religion and Belief, Mrs. Elizabeth Odio Benito.

UN Document E/CN.4/1996/95/Add.l
2 January 1996
Mr. Abdelfattah Amor,
Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance

Amnesty International

Memo of Amnesty International
AI Index: ASA 33/56/85
November 7, 1985

Amnesty International Report 1985

DEATH PENALTY AND LEGAL CONCERN:
MEMBERS OF THE AHMADIYYA COMMUNITY IN PAKSITAN
AI Index: ASA 33/04/86
20 February, 1986

Memo of Amnesty International
AI Index: ASA 33/06/86
March 1986

Amnesty International Report 1986

Amnesty International Report 1987

Amnesty International Report 1988

Amnesty International Report 1989

Amnesty International Report 1990

Amnesty International Report 1991

Pakistan: violations of human rights of Ahmadis
September 1991
AI Index: ASA/33/15/91

Amnesty International Report 1992

Amnesty International Report 1993

PAKISTAN Open letter to the political parties
September 1993
AI Index: ASA 33/04/93

Amnesty International Report 1994

URGENT ACTION
11 March 1994
UA 99/94
AI Index: ASA 33/01/94
Fear for Safety
Pakistan: Attacks against members of the Ahmadiyya community in Lahore

PAKISTAN Five Ahmadi journalists charged with blasphemy
April 1994
AI Index: ASA 33/03/94

PAKISTAN Use and abuse of the blasphemy laws
July 1994
AI Index: ASA 33/08/94

PAKISTAN: ANOTHER AHMADI DELIBERATELY KILLED BY ISLAMISTS
18 April 1995
AI Index: ASA 33/10/95

Human Rights and US Security Assistance
18 May 1995

Amnesty International Annual Report Summaries 1995
AI Index: POL 10/03/95
1800 HRS GMT, WEDNESDAY 5 JULY 1995

Amnesty International Annual Report 1995 Updates
AI Index: POL 10/04/95
1800 HRS GMT, WEDNESDAY 5 JULY 1995

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

Riot and Arson
Nankana Sahib
12 April 1989

Report on Chak Sikandar
Arson and Violence Against Minorities
July 1989

The State of Human Rights in Pakistan 1991
HRCP annual report

HRCP Newsletter, Lahore, October 1992, Vol. 3 No. 4

HRCP Newsletter, Lahore, January 1993. Vol 4. No. 1

The State of Human Rights in Pakistan 1992
HRCP annual report

HRCP Quarterly Newsletter, Vol.IV No.IV October 1993

HRCP Annual Report 1994

Other

Minority Rights Group
Statement before the Sub-Commission
7 August 1984

Lawyer's Committee for International Human Rights
Report of July 1985,
published in USA

Human Rights in Pakistan (January 1987)
Report of Dr. Karen Parker
Attorney-at-Law,
Special Representative,
Human Rights Advocates, Inc.,
an organization with Consultative satus at the United Nations.

Statement by the Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights
August 28, 1987

Chapter VIII of the report:
“PAKISTAN: Human Rights After Martial Law”
International Commission of Jurists
P.O. Box 120, CH-1224 Chene-Bougeries/Geneva
Switzerland.

“Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy in Pakistan”
Antonio R. Gaultieri
Guernica Editions Inc.
Montreal, 1989
ISBN 0-920717-41-1

“Towards the Definition of a Muslim in an Islamic State”;
“The Case of the Ahmadiyya in Pakistan”
in “Religious and Ethnic Minority Politics in South Asia”
Mahnohar Press,
Delhi, 1989

"PAKISTAN HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1992"
United States State Department
January, 1993

"Repeal Discriminatory Law"
Asia Link
Hong Kong
January-February 1993 Vol. 15, No.1
HL/ACPP 921028 (24) Nov.-Dec. 1992

"Persecuted Minorities and Writers in Pakistan"
News from Asia Watch, New York
Asia Watch
Vol. 5 No. 13
19 September 1993

A Comment On The Supreme Court Judgment In the Case of Ahmadis
MM Clarke
23 August 1993

RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION IN PAKISTAN: THE AHMADI CASE AT THE SUPREME COURT
A Commentary by Karen Parker, J.D.
Humanitarian Law Project
December 1993

AHMADIS IN PAKISTAN: UPDATE DECEMBER 1991 TO OCTOBER 1993
QUESTION AND ANSWER SERIES
Research Directorate
Documentation, Information and Research Branch
Immigration And Refugee Board
Ottawa, Canada
January 1994

"PAKISTAN HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1993"
United States State Department
January 31, 1994

Lawyer's Committee for Human Rights
Critique of US State Dept Report 1993
gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:5000/00/int/lchr/asia/papers/9

Lawyer's Committee for Human Rights
Critique of US State Dept Report 1994
gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:5000/00/int/lchr/asia/papers/16

Lawyer's Committee for Human Rights
New York
Letter addressed to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan
February 4, 1994

Lord Avebury,
Chairman of the British Parliamentary Human Rights Group
Letter addressed to the Pakistani High Commissioner in London
February 4, 1994

Lord Avebury,
Chairman of the British Parliamentary Human Rights Group
Letter addressed to Mr. Masood Khalid, Pakistan High Commission, London
February 4, 1994

Lawyer's Committee for Human Rights
New York
Letter addressed to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan
April 22, 1994
Doc #:DC1:5004.1 DC-1324

PRESS RELEASE NO. 10

Statement by
H.E. MR. DAVID KARSGAARD
AMBASSADOR AND CHARGE D'AFFAIRES, A.I.
OF CANADA BEFORE THE 49TH SESSION OF THE
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY

ITEMS 100: (B) AND (C)

HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTONS
AND HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATIONS

NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 29, 1994

PERMANENT MISSION OF CANADA TO THE UNITED NATIONS

Attacks on the Press: An Annual Survey 1994
gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:5000/11/int/cpj
Committee To Protect Journalists

"PAKISTAN HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1994"
United States State Department
January, 1995

"Protecting Religious Minorities: The Courts; Abdication
Tayyab Mahmud, Associate Professor of Law at Cleveland State University
Chapter Six of "Pakistan: 1995"
Charles H. Kennedy and Rasul Baksh Rais

"PAKISTAN HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1995"
United States State Department
March, 1996

Reports in the Pakistani Press

Daily Pakistan Times
November 17, 1983
General Zia quoted as saying:

"Qadianis worse than kafirs"

The Muslim
Islamabad
30th April, 1984
"Keswar Gardezi: Secretary General, Pakistan National Party Withdrawal of Anti-Qadiani Ordinance Urged"

The Muslim
Islamabad
May 3, 1984
"Aitzaz Decries Anti-Qadiani Ordinance Aitzaz Ahsan: Leader of Tehrik-E-Istiqlal"

Viewpoint
Lahore
May 3, 1984
"State and Religion"
criticized martial law ordinance XX.

Viewpoint
Lahore
May 3, 1984
"A Reception, An Ordinance"
Husain Naqi
warned against "officially patronized communalism".

Dawn
Karachi
May 3, 1984
"Theocratisation of the State slated by PNP"

Daily Mashriq, Evening Special
May 5, 1984
General Zia quoted as saying

"The decision about Qadianis is a part of Islamization process."

Daily News
Karachi
May 8, 1984
"Action Criticized"

Daily News
Karachi
May 9, 1984
"Says Begum Wali: Government Wants to Sell Islam"

Daily Muslim
Islamabad
May 10, 1984
"Unjust restrictions for Qadianis"

Lahore
May 10, 1984
"A Bedevilled Legacy"
Ayaz Amir
criticized martial law ordinance XX.

Viewpoint
Lahore
May 24, 1984
"Lahore High Court Bar Association Bar Rejects Sectarian Move"

The Muslim
Islamabad
May 24, 1984
"Muslims Need to Focus on Vital Issues"
Abbas Rashid

The Muslim
Islamabad
May 24, 1984
"Too Harsh on Qadianis"
A. Jamal

Jang
Rawalpindi
June 6, 1984
reported that a shopkeeper in Manshera had been sentenced to six months for using the Muslim greeting assalam alaikum.

Press Statement of Pakistan Democratic Forum
June 7, 1984
"Persecution of Ahmadiyas"

Viewpoint
Lahore
June 7, 1984
"One Sided"
criticized the Pakistani press coverage against Ahmadis

Pakistan Times
December 8, 1984
speech of General Zia inciting violence against Ahmadi Muslims

The Muslim
September 23, 1985
"Shot At"

Daily Nawai Waqt
Karachi
November 28, 1985
Prime Minister M. Junejo quoted concerning his hope that the entire Islamic world would

"crush this curse"

Dawn
February 17, 1986
article on award of death sentences in Sahiwal case

Dawn
July 4, 1986
"Appointment of Qadianis to be Probed"

Daily Nawai Waqt
September 8, 1986
"Qadianis' Place of Worship at Mardan Razed"

Daily Jang
September 19, 1986
reported on the sentencing of two Ahmadis to 5 years rigorous imprisonment even though Ordinance XX carries a maximum 3 years

Daily Jang
Lahore
December 6, 1986
reported that the government refused to allow the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community to hold its annual convention.

Daily Mashriq
January 1, 1987
The minister for Excise and Taxation, Akhtar Rasool, quoted as wishing to

"exterminate the defiant Qadianiyyat from its very roots"

Daily Jang
Lahore
January 6, 1987
The Minister for Auqaf, Malik Khuda Buksh Tiwana, was quoted concerning his his determination to

"eradicate the evil of Mirzaiyyat"

Dawn
February 3, 1987
"Ahmadiyya chief of D.G. Khan arrested"

Dawn
February 19, 1987
"Six Ahmadis' conviction - LHC directs AG to seek Government instructions"
Dawn Lahore Bureau

Nawai Waqt
11 September 1988
reported on the number of Ahmadis arrested under Martial Law Ordinance XX

Daily Jasarat
Karachi
January 9, 1989
The Adviser, Federal Ministry of Religious Affairs, Maulana Siraj Ahmad Dinpuri was quoted on Benazir's wish to not

"undo the great service my father did for Islam".

Daily Hilal-e-Pakistan
Hyderabad, Sindh
April 17, 1989
carried an editorial condemning an attack on an Ahmadi mosque in Nawabshah

Viewpoint
Lahore
24th April, 1989
"Anti-Ahmedia pogrom"
condemned the incident at Nankana Sahib

The Daily Lahore
June 10, 1989
"Odd Conditionality"
criticized the failure of the government to protect Ahmadis

The Pakistan Times
Lahore
June 25, 1990
"Banning a Newspaper"

The Daily Jang
Lahore
December 29, 1990
reported that the Federal Government was collecting a list of all Ahmadis in sensitive positions.

The Herald, Nov 1992
"The Apartheid Card"
Zohra Yusuf

The Frontier Post
November 23, 1992
reported that the Minister for Religious and Minority Affairs had said that the new column for religious affiliation on national identity cards was intended to separate Ahmadis from other Muslims in Pakistan.

Dawn
Karachi
December 1,1992
"Supreme Court Confirms Interim Bail"

Slogan
Lahore
Jan 1993, Vol. 4, No. 4
"Appeal From Abbotabad's Ill Fated Ahmadis"

Herald
Karachi
Jan 1993
"Religious Minorities: A Brief History"

The News International
January 7, 1993
"Bravo Supreme Court of Pakistan"
Syed Afzal Haider
applauded the granting of bail to Ahmadis accused of using Islamic terminology on a wedding card.

Dawn
February 2, 1993
"Qadianis Do Not Have Faith in Holy Prophet Like Muslims"
discussed a constitutional challenge to section 298C.
The government counsel alleged that Ahmadis present themselves as Muslims as a mischief.

The News
February 3, 1993
"Qadianiat a conspiracy against muslim's belief's"
covered the comments of the Government Counsel in a case before the Supreme Court concerning the constitutionality of section 298C.

Dawat-e-Amal
Sargodha, 10 May 1993
"Arrest on Preaching of Qadianiat"

Dawn
Karachi, 4 July 1993
"Qadiani Petitions Dismissed By SC"
Ahmad Hasan Alvi

Newsline
November/December 1993
"Editor's Note"
Razia Bhatti
took note of the misuse of the blasphemy act against religious minorities.

Newsline
November/December 1993
"Persecuted By Law"
I. A. Rehman
discussed the blasphemy act.

Newsline
November/December 1993
"The Fires of Bigotry"
I. A. Rehman
noted that :

The Ahmadis constitute the largest group of persons accused of blasphemy offenses. Over a hundred of them have been charged under Section 295-C alone till July 31, 1993. Many of the cases have been initiated by leaders of anti-Ahmadi organizations and indicate some kind of systematic activity by complainants...

Newsline
November/December 1993
"Victims of Zealotry"
Nafisa Shah
noted that:

The mullah now has an instrument to punish those who disagree with him or annoy him...

Dawn
December 3, 1993
It was reported that the government had abandoned plans to scrap the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution and had decided to retain "Islamic" clauses in the Constitution.

Dawn
Lahore
Section 2
February 8, 1994
"Youth found murdered in cold blood"

The Pakistan Times
Lahore
March 1, 1994
"Cases registered against Qadiani leaders"

NETNEWS
(The News International via Imran-Net)
April 10, 1995
Supporter of 'infidel' stoned to death, Abdullah Jan
Ahmedi lawyer stoned to death, Abdullah Jan

Dawn Wire Service
April 20, 1995
None willing to speak on Shabqadar incident

Dawn Wire Service
May 5, 1995
UK govt urged to help Pakistan combat violence

The News
January 15, 1995
Carried a false report that permission had been granted to Ahmadis to hold a conference in Rabwah.

Daily Jang
January 16, 1995
Carried statement of Majlis Khatam e Nabuwwat threatning to block roads to Rabwah.

Daily Pakistan
January 17, 1995
Carried protests of ulema of governments favourable treatment of Ahmadis.

Daily Jang
January 17, 1995
Carried news of protests over false report that Ahmadis would be permitted to meet in Rabwah, the call to martyrdom to prevent this, and a threat to march on Rabwah.

Daily Pakistan
January 17, 1995
Carried protests against Douglas Hurd and foreign governments over false reports that Ahmadis would be permitted to meet in Rabwah.

Daily Pakistan
January 17, 1995
Carried statement of Senator Samiul Haq against false reports that Ahmadis would be permitted to meet in Rabwah.

Daily Pakistan
January 17, 1995
Carried threat of Maulana Chinioti to destroy Rabwah.

Daily Nawae Waqt
January 18, 1995
Carried statement of the Government of Punjab that Ahmadis would not be permitted to meet in Rabwah.

POLITICS & BUSINESS
March 27, 1995
Where Will it All End?
Naveed Farooqi

Newsline
April 1995
The Price of Faith
Tahir Mehdi and Muddassir Rizvi

Dawn Wire Service
May 9, 1996
A liberal, forward-looking & modern state?
Tahir Mirza

Other Press Reports

Putney Chronicle
London, May 11, 1984
David Mellor, MP for Putney denounced martial law ordinance XX as "...wicked attack on their civil rights."

The Washington Post
Washington
May 17, 1984
"Pakistan Restricting Sect as Non-moslem"

International Herald Tribune
May 18, 1984
"Pakistan Curbs Minority Sect Zia Limits Ahmedi Moslem's Rights on Call by Mullahs"
William Clairborne

The Pioneer
Kumasi, Ghana
May 23, 1984
"The Last Kicks of a Dying Horse"
criticized martial law ordinance XX as a "most oppressive law".

The Times
London
May 31, 1984
"New victims of Zia's drive to Islamic fundamentalism Ahmedi Sect Facing Purge in Pakistan"

New York Times
June 14, 1984
"Our Blind Support for Pakistan's Tyrant"
Stuart Schaar

Nigerian Observer
Nigeria
June 22, 1984
"Fall of Pakistan to Religious Intolerance"

Adresseavisen
Norway
June 22, 1984
"Sikkert At Overgrep Skjer Amnesty Har Rapporter Om Rundjuling Og Drap"

South Western Star
London
July 13, 1984
"Praying for Relatives' Lives"

Newsweek
July 16, 1984
"Persecution of a Religious Sect"

The Pioneer
Kumasi, Ghana
17 August 1984
under the heading "Pakistan" reported on anti-Ahmadi actions by the government after the enactment of martial law ordinance XX.

Echo
Ghana
2 March 1986
"Persecution of Ahmadis continues"

Daily Jang
London
January 16, 1989
quoted the then minister for Religious and Minority Affairs, Khan Bahadur Khan, on keeping the Constitutional Amendment declaring Ahmadis non-muslims.

Daily Jang
London, January 18, 1989
quoted the then minister for
Religious and Minority Affairs, Khan Bahadur Khan, on neutralizing the influence of Ahmadi propaganda in other countries.

Daily Jang
London
February 3, 1989
reported the banning of the Ahmadiyya Centenary Celebrations.

Daily Millat
London
4. Feb 1989
reported that Maulana Siraj Ahmad Deenpuri, Advisor, Federal Ministry of Religious Affairs, had said that all Ahmadis in key posts would be sacked.

Christian Science Monitor
Wednesday, January 5, 1994
"Pakistan Falls Short on Religious Freedom"
The Rev. Robert F. Drinan, S.J.
member of the board at the LAWYER'S COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Daily Jang
London
July 8, 1994
The President of Pakistan and the Minister of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs were quoted as saying that the government had never intended to amend Section 295-C PPC.

United Press International
Friday, September 16, 1994
"Pakistanis destroy minority mosque"

Voice of America gopher server
gopher://gopher.voa.gov/00/newswire/sat/PAKISTAN_HUMAN_RIGHTS
DATE=1/28/95
NUMBER=2-173114
TITLE=PAKISTAN HUMAN RIGHTS (L-ONLY)
BYLINE=JENNIFER GRIFFIN
DATELINE=ISLAMABAD

The Observer
UK
Sunday, 14th May 1995, page 20.
"Mullahs lie in wait to kill jailed convert"
Jennifer Griffith

Voice of America gopher server
gopher://gopher.voa.gov/00/newswire/sat/PAK_-_STRIKE
DATE=5/27/95
TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
NUMBER=2-179487
TITLE=PAK / STRIKE
BYLINE=JENNIFER GRIFFEN
DATELINE=ISLAMABAD

Reuter's wire service report of 27 May 1995 quoted Benazir Bhutto's support of the death penalty for blasphemy

Voice of America gopher server
gopher://gopher.voa.gov/00/newswire/thu/AMNESTY_INTERNATIONAL
DATE=7/6/95
TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
NUMBER=5-30520
TITLE=AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BYLINE=DAUD MAJLIS
DATELINE=WASHINGTON

Voice of America gopher server
DATE=1/24/96
TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
NUMBER=5-32263
TITLE=PAKISTAN RELIGION
BYLINE=DOUGLAS BAKSHIAN
DATELINE=ISLAMABAD

Bangkok Post, 25 January 1996
"Pakistan Called Haven for Religious Bigots"
ISLAMABAD, AP

Books by Ahmadis

Check http://store.alislam.org/ for more books.

The Persecution of Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan:
An Objective Study
Mujib ur Rehman

Persecution of Ahmadi Muslims and Their Response
Press and Publication Desk
Ahmadiyya Muslim Association
compiled by Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry with the assistance of Dr. Shamim Ahmad

Government of Pakistan

Article 20, Constitution of Pakistan

White Paper on "The Performance of the Bhutto Regime"
Government of Pakistan, 1979

Anti Ahmadiyya Ordinance, 26 April, 1984

Message of General Zia ul Haq to the Khatam-e-Nabuwwat Conference, London, dated 4 August, 1984 noting efforts to exterminate "cancer" of Ahmadiyyat.

Statement of Observer of Pakistan,
before UN Commission on Human Rights
25 February 1986

Letter of Khan Bahadur Khan, Federal Minister of State for Religious and Minority Affairs, to Mian Nawaz Sharif, Chief Minister of Punjab, calling for vigourous persecution of Ahmadis under Martial Law Ordinance XX.
(D.O.) No: 6 (4) DDJ/89,
30.1.1989

Memorandum on Ahmadiyya Question
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
No.UN(11)-2/29/93
16 January, 1994

Miscellaneous

Jinnah of Pakistan
Stanley Wolpert
Oxford University Press
New York, 1984

From Jinnah to Zia
Muhammad Munir
Vanguard Books Ltd.
Lahore

The Discourse and Politics of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Anwar H. Syed
St. Martin's Press
New York, 1991

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